Investing in construction is one of the most common ways to buy a home. Attractive pictures of comfortable residential complexes, the prospect of having a new home in which there is no aura of the previous owners, and a cool renovation "from scratch" easily attract buyers.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the reputation of the developer: how many years on the market, how many implemented projects and commissioned houses, customer reviews. You can use the media or forums to obtain such information. Deceived customers will not be silent, and negative experiences will always come to the surface. However, this information may not always be true, so it should be carefully checked.
Earth. The developer should have the right to build on the land under the future house. To do this, he must have land owned, leased or on the basis of other contracts, such as a superficies contract. Documents confirming the right to land must be requested from the developer before signing the contract. It should be noted that the company that sells the apartment may not be the owner or user of the land. In this case, it is necessary to demand from the developer the documents concluded with the user or the owner of the land, certifying the agreement on the further distribution of apartments between them.
For the construction of a house, the land plot must be provided with the correct purpose - usually for the construction and maintenance of an apartment building. The purpose can be checked on the public cadastral map. There you can check the owner and user of the land.
Construction documents. For the construction of a residential house, the developer is obliged to obtain town-planning conditions and restrictions on the construction of the land plot. It is a document containing planning and architectural requirements for design and construction.
In addition, to carry out the construction of a multi-storey building, the developer must obtain a permit for construction work, which can be checked on the website of the State Architectural and Construction Inspectorate of Ukraine. You should also pay attention to other documents, such as the general contractor's license.
In the Unified State Register of Legal Entities, Individuals - Entrepreneurs and Public Entities, it is worth checking the construction company, its activities, and it has not been declared bankrupt. In addition, it should be checked whether the developer has not opened enforcement proceedings for outstanding debts and whether there is a tax debt. Thus, if a developer has a tax debt, the state tax service has the right to a tax lien on the property of such a developer, which, of course, threatens investors not to receive the object of investment.
An important stage of the inspection is the search in the Unified State Register of court decisions as lawsuits on the object of construction and land, and litigation of the developer with buyers in connection with the breach of obligations.
There are different schemes for raising funds for construction: through construction financing funds, real estate funds, through a contract of sale of property rights, a contract of participation in a housing cooperative, a preliminary contract of sale of an apartment, a contract of sale of a derivative, etc.
Subject of the contract. The subject must be specified in detail in the contract. Thus, the amount of payment must be clearly indicated. For housing indicate data on its location, size, technical characteristics. The following information should be registered as fully and accurately as possible: cadastral number of the land plot on which the house is located; construction address; storeys of the house and the floor on which the apartment is located, its number, number of rooms, total and living area.
It is necessary to pay attention as this provision is registered: as obligations ("The party is obliged to complete construction and to accept in operation no later than July 22, 2021") or vaguely type: "Approximate term of commissioning -…". Declarative provisions are always a risky option.
However, even if commissioning is prescribed as the responsibility of the developer, this provision may lose its meaning if the contract does not provide for liability, such as a fine for violation of the terms of commissioning. In this case, the developer will be able to delay the completion of construction indefinitely without negative consequences.
It is worth paying attention to how it is spelled out responsibility of the developer and investor in case of non-fulfillment or violation of the terms of the contract, in particular, liability is provided and in what amount.
Possibility of termination of the contract unilaterally. It is provided in general and for whom - for all parties or for one? The important thing here is the nuance of a refund if the buyer decides to terminate the contract early.
Deviation from the design area of the apartment. At the time of concluding the contract, there is no apartment yet, so the prospect is quite real that the actual area after construction will be less or more than planned and agreed. It is necessary that the contract stipulates how the recalculation and surcharge or refund will take place in this case. It is also possible to provide the maximum possible deviation from the project area.
Obligations of the developer. It does not matter which contract the developer signs with the investor, but it must include the obligation of the developer not to mortgage the property, not to contribute to the authorized capital of the company, to sell property to others, etc., as well as penalties for violation of these obligations.
It is necessary to pay attention to the procedure and term of acceptance of the apartment by the investor and elimination of shortcomings by the developer in case of their detection. In particular, it is possible that some defects, such as insufficient sound insulation, may appear over time, also need to be considered.
It is worth noting that no set of documents will give an absolute guarantee of completion of construction, because investing is inherently risky and depends on the financial activities of the developer and the market situation. However, careful study of these issues will still increase the chances of getting the desired apartment in the future.